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1.1. Reliable and timely database is the basic necessity for any sound and systematic planning. Moreover, the availability of detailed information, at macro level is the key to effective planning. Though a fairly adequate system of agricultural statistics has already been developed in the country but such an information system has not yet been built up for the non-agricultural sector. While statistics in respect of organized segments of the non-agricultural economy are being collected more or less regularly. It is not so in regard to its unorganized sector, although this sector assumes greater importance due to its significant contribution towards gross domestic product as also in generation of employment in developing economy. To bridge the gap by providing basic data on non-agricultural sector and also providing frame for the follow up survey on different section of the economy, a scheme of Economic Census and Surveys was launched by Central Statistical Organization, Government of India in the year 1976. Since then, the Central Statistical Organization has conducted six Economic Census in the year 1977, 1980, 1990, 1998,2005 & 2013.Now field work of Seventh Economic Census 2019 has been completed and data finalization is in progress.

1.2. Economic Census is the complete count of all entrepreneurial units located within the geographical boundaries of the country, involved in any economic activities of either agricultural (excluding crop production and plantation) or non-agricultural sector of the Economy, engaged in production and/or distribution of goods and/or services not for the sole purpose of own consumption.


1.3. The first coordinated approach to fill these vital data gaps was made by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Government of India by launching a plan scheme 'Economic Census and Surveys' in 1976. The scheme envisaged organizing countrywide census of all economic activities (excluding those engaged in crop production and plantation) followed by detailed sample surveys of unorganized segments of different sectors on non-agricultural economy in a phased manner during the intervening period of two successive economic censuses. The basic purpose of conducting the economic census was to prepare a frame while follow up surveys intended to collect more detailed sector specific information between two economic censuses. In view of the rapid changes that occur in the unorganized sectors of non-agricultural economy due to high mobility or morbidity of smaller units and also on account of births of new units, the scheme envisaged conducting the economic census periodically in order to update the frame from time to time.


1.4. The first economic census was conducted through out the country, except Lakshadweep, during 1977 in collaboration with the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DES) in the States/Union Territories (UT). The coverage was restricted to only non-agricultural establishments employing at least one hired worker on a fairly regular basis. Data on items such as description of activity, number of persons usually working, type of ownership etc. were collected.

1.5. Based on the frame provided by the first economic census, detailed sample surveys were carried out during 1978-79 and 1979-80 covering the establishments engaged in manufacturing, trade, hotels & restaurants, transport, storage & warehousing and services. While the smaller establishments (employing less than six workers) and own account establishments were covered by NSSO as part of its 33rd and 34th rounds, the larger establishments were covered through separate surveys. Detailed information on employment, emoluments, capital structure, quantity & value of input, output, etc. was collected and reports giving all important characteristics on each of the concerned subject were published.


1.6. The second economic census was conducted in 1980 along with the house-listing operations of 1981 Population Census. This was done with a view to economies resources, manpower, time and money. The scope and coverage was enlarged. This time all establishments engaged in economic activities (both agricultural and non-agricultural whether employing any hired worker or not) were covered, except those engaged in crop production and plantation. All States/UTs were covered with the sole exception of Assam, where population census, 1981 was not conducted.

1.7. The information on location of establishment, description of economic activity carried on, nature of operation, type of ownership, social group of owner, use of power/fuel, total number of workers usually engaged with its hired component and break-up of male and female workers was collected. The items, on which information was collected in second economic census, were more or less the same as those collected in the first economic census. However, based on experience gained in the first economic census certain items viz. years of activity, value of annual output/turnover/receipt, mixed activity or not, registered/ licensed/recognized and act or authority, if registered were dropped.

1.8. Based on the frame thrown up by EC 1980, three follow-up surveys were carried out, one in 1983-84 on hotels & restaurants, transport, storage & warehousing and services, second in 1984-85 on unorganized manufacturing and third in 1985-86 on wholesale and retail trade.

1.9. The EC 1980 frame was updated during 1987-88 in 64 cities (12 cities having more than 10 lakh population and 52 class-I cities), which had problems of identification of enumeration blocks and changes due to rapid industrialization. On the basis of the updated frame, four follow-up surveys were conducted during 1988-89, 1989-90, 1990-91 and 1991-92 covering the subjects of hotels & restaurants and transport, unorganized manufacturing, wholesale & retail trade and medical, educational, cultural & other services respectively.


1.10. The third economic census scheduled for 1986 could not be carried out due to resource constraints, which was synchronized with the house listing operations of the Population Census 1991 on the same pattern of EC 1980. The purpose of synchronizing it with house listing operation was to minimize the cost and conduct the fieldwork more conveniently and effectively. The coverage was similar to that of EC 1980. All States/UTs except Jammu & Kashmir, where population census 1991 was not undertaken, were covered.

1.11. Based on the frame thrown up by EC 1990 four follow up surveys were carried out: (i) Establishment Survey covering sectors of mining & quarrying, storage & warehousing in 1992-93; (ii) Establishment Survey covering sectors of hotels & restaurants and transport in 1993-94; (iii) NSS 51st round covering directory, non-directory and own account establishments in unregistered manufacturing sector in 1994-95 and (iv) Directory Trade Establishments Survey in 1996-97. NSS 53rd round covered the residual part of the unorganized trade sector in 1997.


1.12. With a view to meeting the demand of various user departments for the data on unorganized sectors of the economy and considering the nature of large number of small units which are subjected to high rates of mobility and mortality, it was felt that the economic census must be brought back to its quinquennial nature so that an up-to-date and complete frame can be made available once in five years for conducting the follow up surveys. It was also felt necessary to assess the impact of economic liberalization process on entrepreneurial activities of the country and to monitor the sectorial changes, particularly the emergence of the service sector. Keeping these aspects in view, fourth economic census was planned during 1996. But due to severe budgetary constraints the scheme could be launched in only in 1998.

1.13. The overall responsibility for organization and conduct of the economic census rested with the CSO. The DESs of respective States/UTs were made responsible for conducting the fieldwork and preparing the report.

1.14. Based on the frame thrown up by EC 1990 four follow up surveys were carried out: (i) Establishment Survey covering sectors of mining & quarrying, storage & warehousing in 1992-93; (ii) Establishment Survey covering sectors of hotels & restaurants and transport in 1993-94; (iii) NSS 51st round covering directory, non-directory and own account establishments in unregistered manufacturing sector in 1994-95 and (iv) Directory Trade Establishments Survey in 1996-97. NSS 53rd round covered the residual part of the unorganized trade sector in 1997.


1.15. There are certain new features of the Fifth Economic Census 2005, which include canvassing of a separate “Address Slip” among the establishments employing 10 workers or more for compilation of a Directory of larger establishments. The Directory of establishments is to be compiled on the basis of data collected in Fifth Economic Census would provide input for preparation of a Business Register. Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) technology is used for the first time for scanning and processing the EC data. For this, automated forms were designed to scanned to a digital format so that the data on the form can be “extracted” by software rather than keyboard by data entry personnel.


1.16. The Central Statistical office, Government of India, conducted the Six Economic Census 2013 in the country with collaboration of Directorate of Economic & Statistics of the State. In this Census a complete enumeration of all agricultural (except crop production & plantation) and non-agricultural entrepreneurial activities was carried out. The field operation of Seventh EC was conducted during Aug to Oct 2019 in the State. The information for each establishment was collected on its location, description of activity, nature of operation, type of ownership, social group of owner, power/fuel used for the activity, duration of operation, registration agency, source of finance along with the employed persons including wages workers.

1.17. First time address slip was also canvassed for the establishment that has 10 or more workers in the Fifth Economic Census. Similarly the Directory of establishment in schedule 6 C was also canvassed for the establishment that has 8 or more workers in the Sixth Economic Census.

1.18. The state report of Sixth Economic Census has been published. This report is based on the detailed tabulation done after the Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR). The report of Sixth Economic Census presents a comprehensive statistical profile of the enterprises in the State. For the first time, data of Handicraft/Handloom establishments, establishments owned by women and their source of finance etc. were identified separately and the information on no. of persons working therein was also collected.

Seventh Economic Census - 2019

1.19 Seventh Economic Census commence in the state from August 2019 work under progress.

1.20 In this census all establishments including household enterprises, engaged in production or distribution of goods/services (other than for the sole purpose of own consumption) in non- farm agricultural and non-agricultural sector have been counted.

1.21 In case of agriculture, establishments engaged in crop production and plantation has not been covered. In case of non-agriculture, establishments engaged in public administration, defense, compulsory social security, activities of households as employers of domestic personnel, activities of territorial organizations and bodies and illegal activities have not been covered during the 7th Economic Census.

1.22 CSC e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle formed under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (Meity), has been selected as the Implementation Agency for the Development of ICT platform system and conduct of fieldwork for the 7th Economic Census.

1.23 7Th EC includes geo tagged data of business enterprises to ensure that no bogus enterprises are included in the official statistics. The geo tagging is expected to help weed out the shell companies and thereby improve data quality.

Key Stakeholders

1.24 Following are the major stakeholders in the successful conduct of the 7th Economic Census:

a. Economic Statistics Division, Central Statistics Office, Ministry Of Statistics And Program Implementation, GOI, New Delhi

b. Common Service Centre- Special Purpose Vehicle

c. National Sample Survey Organization (Field Operation Division), MoS&PI, GOI

d. State Governments and Central Ministries

1.25 The 7th Economic Census, conducted with advanced ICT tools and applications. The Census has been conducted using state-of-the-art ICT platform, real-time data validation & scrutiny, monitoring & supervision using interactive MIS dashboards. Finalization & dissemination of results will be published through Statistical reports.


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Tel: 0141-2850247

Name - Smt. Rajshree Sankhla

Designation - System Analyst (Joint Director)

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